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History of UK Drinking Water Supply

Updated: Jan 28

an old aqueduct in autumn

Water, especially good quality drinking water, is the lifeblood of any nation, and the UK's water industry has a rich history dating back centuries.

This article will take you on a journey through time, exploring the evolution of drinking water supply, and regulation in the UK.

Ancient Aqueducts and Wells

The history of water supply in the UK can be traced back to ancient times. The Romans were the first to introduce sophisticated water management systems, constructing aqueducts and wells to supply water to their settlements.

Bath, a city renowned for its Roman baths, is a prime example of the engineering marvels that brought water from natural springs to urban areas. The Roman legacy of aqueducts and plumbing laid the foundation for future water supply systems.

The Dark Ages

After the grandeur of Roman aqueducts, the mediaeval era returned to the use of wells as the primary source of water for most communities. Villages and towns relied on communal wells, often located in the town square, for their water needs.

Monasteries and castles had their own wells or cisterns to ensure a reliable water supply. However, maintaining well water quality was challenging, as it was susceptible to contamination from nearby houses and their waste.

lady getting water in an old well

In response to the growing concerns about water quality and equitable access, many towns began to appoint "water bailiffs" or "water overseers." These officials were responsible for regulating the use of communal wells and ensuring that water sources remained clean. They were the early predecessors of today's water quality regulators.

Some towns also began to use river water for their needs. However, this presented its own set of challenges. While rivers offered a relatively convenient water source, they were also subject to pollution, making waterborne diseases a significant concern. The practice of taking water directly from rivers was far from ideal, and the need for filtration and purification became apparent.

To address the issues of river water quality, mediaeval society began to experiment with simple filtration methods. Some communities used sand and gravel filters to remove impurities and sediment from the water. These rudimentary filtration techniques marked the early steps toward ensuring cleaner water.

The growth of mediaeval towns led to greater pressure on water resources. As populations swelled, wells and simple cisterns were often insufficient to meet the increasing demands for water. This, in turn, stimulated interest in more sophisticated water supply systems, laying the groundwork for future innovations.

Despite the challenges and limitations of mediaeval water supply systems, this era was a crucial phase in the evolution of water management in the UK.

It set the stage for the early modern era, where more ambitious projects, such as the New River in London, would demonstrate the growing importance of clean and accessible water.

Early Modern Era

Early Modern Era (1500 - 1700s) marked a significant turning point in the history of the UK water industry. During this period, innovative solutions were developed to address the growing need for clean and reliable water supply in expanding urban centres. These advancements laid the foundation for modern water infrastructure.

The New River in London is a remarkable engineering feat, and was one of the standout achievements of this era. Constructed between 1609 and 1613, it was not actually a river but a man-made waterway. It was initiated by Sir Hugh Myddelton to supply clean water to London, which had been grappling with water supply, water quality issues and an increasing population.

The New River brought water from springs in Hertfordshire, over 40 miles away, to central London. It relied on gravity to transport water through a network of channels and pipes, avoiding the pollution of the River Thames.

This project served as a blueprint for later urban water supply systems and demonstrated the value of sourcing water from clean, natural springs rather than polluted rivers.

Outside London, in smaller towns and rural areas, wells and water wheels remained common sources of water. Water wheels were used to draw water from rivers and transport it to nearby settlements. These were essential for powering mills and supplying water to homes and businesses. Although these systems were relatively simple, they played a vital role in ensuring a local water supply.

As the demand for clean water grew, innovations in water filtration and distribution systems emerged. Sand and gravel filters became more advanced, aiding in the removal of sediments and impurities.

Additionally, wooden and lead pipes began to replace clay or wooden troughs, allowing water to be transported more efficiently and hygienically. The term ‘trunk’ mains originates from the use of hollowed out tree trunks to deliver water to communities.

old wooden water pipe

In cities, public wells and fountains became important fixtures. They provided accessible water to the population and also served as gathering points. These fountains, often ornate and designed with artistic flair, were not only practical but also a testament to the growing appreciation of clean water in public spaces.

The Early Modern Era also witnessed the establishment of regulations and governance structures for water supply. Local authorities took on more active roles in overseeing water sources, ensuring quality, and resolving disputes over water rights. Water quality standards began to be enforced more rigorously, reflecting the increasing awareness of the connection between clean water and public health.

Improvements in plumbing fixtures and techniques became more prevalent during this period. Indoor plumbing began to be introduced in wealthier homes and public buildings, contributing to the convenience and hygiene of daily life.

There was a move in the UK that saw a shift from relying solely on wells and simple systems to more sophisticated methods of water supply and distribution.

The construction of the New River in London, the proliferation of public wells and fountains, advancements in filtration and plumbing marked significant milestones in the history of the water industry.

These innovations paved the way for the transformation of urban water supply systems and improved the quality of life for many in the UK.

Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution transformed the UK's water industry. Rapid urbanisation and industrialisation led to increased pollution and a surge in waterborne diseases. Water supply systems evolved to accommodate the growing population. Focus on water quality began in earnest,

John Snow, an English physician and epidemiologist, identified a particular public water pump in 1854 as the source of a cholera outbreak in London's Soho. Snow's findings inspired fundamental changes in the water and waste systems of London, which led to similar changes in other cities, and a significant improvement in general public health around the world.

Around the same time, Joseph Bazalgette's visionary sewer system, built in the mid-19th century in London, was a turning point in removing wastewater and improving public health. It's a system that is the backbone that serves the city today.

One of the first reported uses of chlorination for the disinfection of water supplies was in 1897, when bleach solution was used to disinfect a water main in Maidstone, Kent, UK, following an outbreak of typhoid. Regular use in water treatment began around the beginning of the twentieth century.

Regulation, Nationalisation and Privatisation

book cover with rules and regulations written

As the 19th and 20th centuries progressed, the UK government began to regulate water supply more rigorously. The Public Health Act of 1875 empowered local authorities to oversee water quality and wastewater.

Private water companies dominated the sector, with approximately 365 in existence at the time but their operations were not always equitable. This led to the nationalisation of the water industry in 1973, creating 10 regional water authorities responsible for water supply and wastewater.

The nationalisation of the water industry was followed by privatisation in 1989. The industry was divided into 10 large Water and Sewerage Companies responsible for operations, while economic regulators (OFWAT) ensured pricing control and water quality regulators (DWI) oversaw water quality.

This shift aimed to encourage investment into the deteriorating asset base of the UK water companies, but it also raised concerns about water quality, price increases, and profits for investment companies.

More recently there has been an appetite to introduce competition through licensing new appointments and variations (NAV), overseen by a newly formed regulator (MOSL).

Sufficiency of supply and water resource challenges

In recent years, sufficiency of supply has come to the forefront of the water industry. Climate change and increased water scarcity have highlighted the need for sustainable water management.

The UK government has introduced policies to promote water conservation and reduce environmental impact. The industry is also working to upgrade ageing infrastructure, reduce leakage and improve water efficiency. Examples of water efficiency measures include fixing leaks, installing water-efficient appliances, and using water wisely at home.

A new reservoir is being built in the South East, the first since the 1970s and will provide resilient water supplies to a region that is already water stressed due to a continuous growing population. The reservoir will take up to 10 years to fully commission.


The history of the UK water industry is a reflection of the nation's growth, from ancient Roman aqueducts to modern environmental concerns.

It showcases the evolving efforts to provide clean and safe drinking water to an expanding population while addressing water resource and environmental challenges.

As the industry faces new challenges in the 21st century, such as climate change and sustainability, it continues to adapt and evolve to meet the needs of the present and future generations.

If you are interested to learn more about the UK Water Industry. Please check our 4 mornings training course entitled: Introduction to UK Water Industry that we deliver in behalf of the Institute of Water

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