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What are the Latest Technologies for Leak Detection?

underground pipe with water leaks

In the water industry, leak detection is essential to maintaining a sustainable and efficient water supply network. With ageing infrastructure in the UK and increasing water demand, the need for advanced leak detection technologies has never been greater. 

Here, we explore some of the latest innovations revolutionising leak detection and helping water industry professionals tackle this persistent challenge.

Traditional and age-old technology includes a wooden listening stick that is placed on a feature on the distribution network such as a valve or hydrant. An experienced water inspector will be able to listen to the flow of water and accurately pinpoint a leak. This experienced skill is slowly being replaced by digital technology.

Acoustic Leak Detection

Acoustic leak detection has been a staple in the industry for years, but recent advancements have significantly enhanced its effectiveness. 

Modern acoustic devices use highly sensitive sensors to detect the sound of water escaping from pipes. These sensors are now equipped with sophisticated algorithms that can differentiate between background noise and the sound of a leak, making the detection process more accurate. Integrating machine learning (ML) allows these systems to improve over time, learning from each detection event to refine their accuracy. 

One example is FIDO AI, which has proven technology and the ability to find and measure hidden underground leaks using acoustics empowering water utilities to fix the leaks that matter and save more water faster.

Satellite Leak Detection

Satellite technology has become a valuable tool for detecting large-scale leaks. By using high-resolution imagery, satellites can pinpoint moisture anomalies in the ground, which may indicate potential leaks. In the UK, with high rainfall resulting in naturally wet ground, there are obvious challenges to using this method to identify leaks.

This technology is particularly useful for monitoring vast, remote areas where traditional methods may not be as practical. The satellite data is analysed using advanced software to pinpoint leak locations, enabling targeted responses.

Smart Water Meters

A gladiator UK water meter from Arad

The arrival of smart water meters has led to significant advancements in leak detection and water management.

These meters provide near real-time data on water usage, allowing for the early identification of unusual consumption patterns that may indicate a leak. Smart meters are connected to centralised monitoring systems, enabling water companies to quickly identify and address issues before they escalate. This proactive approach helps reduce water loss and minimises the impact on consumers.

Learn more about water metering with our Introduction to UK Water Metering course.

Infrared Thermography

An infrared water leak detector pointing at the floor ready for detection

Infrared thermography is a non-invasive method that uses thermal imaging to detect leaks.

By capturing temperature variations on the surface of pipes, this technology can identify areas where water is escaping and causing cooling or heating effects. Infrared cameras are portable and can inspect pipes above and below ground, making them versatile tools for leak detection.

This method is especially promising for hidden leaks. Those leaks don't appear on the surface but seep and flow deeper into the ground.

Fibre Optic Sensing

Two hands working on fiber optics wires and insulators

Fibre optic sensing technology involves embedding fibre optic cables along water pipelines. These cables can detect changes in temperature, pressure, and strain, providing near real-time data on the condition of the pipes.

‘Dark Fibre Sensing’ a project led by Severn Trent as part of the OFWAT innovation fund has the potential to change the industry, by utilising inactive cables already laid, that are unused by existing telecommunication cable networks running alongside water mains, to demonstrate the ability to detect leaks.

When a leak occurs, the fibre optic sensors detect the resulting pressure changes and alert operators to the issue's exact location. This technology offers continuous monitoring and is highly effective for early leak detection, reducing water loss and preventing potential pipe failures. 

Advanced Pressure Management

Pressure management systems are designed to optimise the pressure within water distribution networks. By maintaining optimal pressure levels, these systems reduce the stress on pipes and minimise the risk of leaks.

Advanced pressure management involves pressure-regulating valves, remote sensors, and intelligent control systems that adjust the pressure based on demand and network conditions. This approach not only helps in leak prevention but also extends the lifespan of the infrastructure.

Drone Technology

Drones equipped with advanced sensors and cameras are increasingly used for leak detection. These uncrewed aerial vehicles can cover large areas quickly and access difficult-to-reach locations, providing detailed visual and thermal imaging data.


Drones can identify signs of leaks, such as damp spots, vegetation anomalies, and thermal variations. The data collected is analysed using specialised software to locate leaks, enabling prompt intervention accurately.


The latest leak detection technologies are transforming how water industry professionals in the UK manage and maintain their networks. From acoustic sensors and satellite imagery to smart meters and fibre optic sensing, these innovations offer enhanced accuracy, near real-time monitoring, and efficient leak identification.


Embracing these technologies not only helps conserve water resources but also ensures the reliability and sustainability of the water supply system.

As the industry continues to evolve, staying informed about these advancements is crucial for professionals safeguarding our water infrastructure. By using and refining these cutting-edge tools, we can effectively address the challenges of leak detection and contribute to a more resilient and sustainable water future.

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